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Based on those strategies certain ways of international strategic alliances proved to be the most appropriate ones. Despite these challenges and opportunities international partnerships also hold a lot of risks. The most recent example is the failed alliance between Daimler and Chrysler. That is why special requirements have to be met to guarantee a more successful performance.

Instead of reacting on global processes with the help of quantitative strategies through outer growth e. Through developing and enhancing the decision-making as well as the capabilities for solving problems, an organisation is able to contain and improve its competitive position within a global environment. Hence, only a balance between inner and outer growth makes it possible to meet the conditions for ensuring their ability to survive. That is why culture is very important within the process of globalisation.

The intention of the next chapter is thus to work out what culture means and what differences and conflicts exist. Always referring to a social, supra-individual, collective shared phenomena, it contains competencies for dealing with problems so that the capacity of survival of a group is assured. Moreover groups are using culture as a mechanism of adjusting to the environment , p.

Culture generally determines the prevailing norms and values. Those common norms in turn have certain characteristics:. Resulting from these aspects it is visible that a change in culture and values would take a lot of time. That is why even the attitudes and behaviour which are influenced by culture and norms can only be changed over a long period Forstmann, Hence strategic alliances between companies with different cultural backgrounds need a lot of effort and preparation time for adjusting to each other, in order to allow successful co-operation.

Recapitulating, it can be seen that a strong relationship between culture and behaviour is in existence. This behaviour e. With the help of these objects the membership to a special group is shown. As a result culture is manifested in visible artefacts. That is why even the attitudes and behaviour which are influenced by culture and norms can only be changed over a long period Forstmann, Hence strategic alliances between companies with different cultural backgrounds need a lot of effort and preparation time for adjusting to each other, in order to allow successful co-operation. Recapitulating, it can be seen that a strong relationship between culture and behaviour is in existence.

This behaviour e. With the help of these objects the membership to a special group is shown. As a result culture is manifested in visible artefacts. Within globalised markets companies have to face different types of cultures. All the elements, for instance an economic or political system, which influence a foreign company, are exogenously established.

Next to the function of motivation, the corporate culture is important for internal integration and identification as well as the co-ordination within the company Forstmann, Nevertheless there is also a relationship between both types of existing cultures. That is why corporate culture can also be understood as a subculture. Even though those employees are also internalising corporate cultural values, a life-long learned country culture is more dominant, so that national cultural value based assumptions are hardly changeable. Despite adapting to the corporate culture of a multinational enterprise, people will always fall back on their proper cultural values and behaviour patterns especially in times of crisis, stress or uncertainty.

That is why especially the confrontation of two different corporate cultures influenced by different country cultural backgrounds can cause problems. An intra-organisational problem between e. Moreover the clash of moral concepts between expatriates and employees of the host country could cause ethical conflicts. By contrast inter-organisational conflicts are ethic conflicts between a foreign company and institutions in the host country, e.

Differences between those entities can result amongst others in restricted corporate latitude.

Organizational Ambidexterity, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and I-Deals: The Moderating Role of CSR

Briberies such as side-payments, being regarded as something normal in a host country, can be completely uncommon for the foreign company so that problems in the business process might occur Kreikebaum et al. As a result the success of an international strategic alliance depends on the capability to overcome cultural differences. Harvard Business Review, 73 2 , 59— Krauss, S. Entrepreneurial orientation: A psychological model of success among southern African small business owners.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14 3 , — The influence of relationship quality on the innovation capacity in traditional food chains. Lantos, G. The ethicality of altruistic corporate social responsibility. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19 3 , — Lechner, C.


  • 1. Introduction!
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  • How Orientation Benefits Business.

Entrepreneurial orientation, firm strategy and small firm performance. International Small Business Journal, 32 1 , 36— Lewin, K. Field theory in social science.

New York: Harper and Row. Litano, M. How can men and women be allies in achieving work—family balance? The role of coping in facilitating positive crossover. Major Eds. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Lubatkin, M. Ambidexterity and performance in small-to medium-sized firms: The pivotal role of top management team behavioral integration.

Journal of Management, 32 5 , — Luo, X. Exploring the relationship between corporate social responsibility and firm innovation. Marketing Letters,. Luu, T. Organisational culture, leadership and performance measurement integratedness. International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development, 9 3 , — What trust grows through upward influence? Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 4 2 , — The role of CSR in clinical governance and its influence on knowledge sharing.


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Clinical Governance: An International Journal, 18 2 , 90— Corporate social responsibility, upward influence behavior, team processes and competitive intelligence. Underneath organizational health and knowledge sharing. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26 1 , — MacKinnon, D. A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variables effects. Psychological Methods, 7 1 , 83— Maignan, I. Journal of Business Ethics, 30 1 , 57— Malhotra, N. Marketing research: An applied approach 2nd ed.

Harlow: Pearson Education. March, J. Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2 1 , 71— McShane, S. Organizational behavior: Emerging knowledge and practice for the real world. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Journal of Business Ethics, 4 , — Miller, D. Innovation in conservative and entrepreneurial firms: Two models of strategic momentum. Strategic Management Journal, 3 1 , 1— Minoja, M. Stakeholder management theory, firm strategy, and ambidexterity. Journal of Business Ethics, 1 , 67— Muchiri, M. Entrepreneurial orientation and leadership: A review, model and research agenda.

Naranjo-Valencia, J.

Index of contents

Innovation or imitation? The role of organizational culture. Management Decision, 49 1 , 55— Neuman, W. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches 4th ed. The role of ethical values in an expanded psychological contract. Journal of Business Ethics, 90 2 , — The ambidextrous organization. Harvard Business Review, 82 4 , 74— Orlitzky, M. Corporate social responsibility, noise, and stock market volatility. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 27 3 , — Otubanjo, O. Theorising the interconnectivity between corporate social responsibility CSR and corporate identity.

Journal of Management and Sustainability, 3 1 , 74— Peloza, J. How can corporate social responsibility activities create value for stakeholders?

Competitive Orientation

A systematic review. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39 1 , — Pirsch, J. A framework for understanding corporate social responsibility programs as a continuum: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Ethics, 70 2 , — Podnar, K. CSR expectations: The focus of corporate marketing. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 12 4 , — Podsakoff, P. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 5 , — Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12 4 , — Porter, M. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

Sales Orientation in Marketing-Driven Businesses

Harvard Business Review, 80 12 , 56— Ragins, B. Marginal mentoring: The effects of type of mentor, quality of relationship, and program design on work and career attitudes. Academy of Management Journal, 43 6 , — Raisch, S. Organizational ambidexterity: Balancing exploitation and exploration for sustained performance. Resick, C.

Ethical leadership, moral equity judgments, and discretionary workplace behavior. Human Relations, 66 7 , — Rindfleisch, A.

Business Strategy: Are You Inside-Out or Outside-In?

Cross-sectional versus longitudinal survey research: Concepts, findings, and guidelines. Journal of Marketing Research, 45 3 , — Rohiua, G. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between speed of internationalization and performance outcomes among young international ventures. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Business, Brock University.

Rosen, C. Journal of Management, 39 3 , — Rothaermel, F. Ambidexterity in technology sourcing: The moderating role of absorptive capacity. Rousseau, D. The idiosyncratic deal: Flexibility versus fairness? Organizational Dynamics, 29 , — I-deals: Idiosyncratic deals employees bargain for themselves. Armonk, NY: M. I-deals: Idiosyncratic terms in employment relationships. Academy of Management Review, 31 4 , — Idiosyncratic deals: Testing propositions on timing, content, and the employment relationship. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74 3 , — Saeed, S.